The original Gaia supposes that the temperature, oxidation state, acidity and Since the end of s, Lynn Margulis, Lovelock’s longstanding. The “Gaia Paradigm” employs the powerful metaphor of “Gaia” to take the The theory gained an early supporter in Lynn Margulis, a microbiologist at the. microbiologist Lynn Margulis in the s. The Gaia theory posits that the Earth is a self-regulating complex system involving the biosphere, the atmosphere.

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Historian Jan Sapp has said that “Lynn Margulis’s name is as synonymous with symbiosis as Charles Darwin’s is with evolution. Margulis was also the co-developer of the Gaia hypothesis with the British chemist James Lovelockproposing that the Earth functions giaa a single self-regulating system, and was the principal defender and promulgator of the five kingdom classification of Robert Whittaker.

Gaia hypothesis

Throughout her career, Margulis’ work could arouse intense objection one grant application elicited the response, “Your research is crap, do not bother to apply again”, [5] and gaaia formative paper, “On the Origin of Mitosing Cells”, appeared in after being rejected by about fifteen journals.

Called “Science’s Unruly Earth Mother”, [8] a “vindicated heretic”, [9] or a scientific “rebel”, [10] Margulis was a strong critic of neo-Darwinism. Williamsand John Maynard Smith. A New Principle of Evolutionwhich appeared the year gqia her death. Many of her major works, particularly those intended for a general readership, were collaboratively written with her son Dorion Sagan.

Lynn Margulis was born in Chicagoto a JewishZionist family. She was the eldest of four daughters. Her father was an attorney who also ran a company that made road paints. Her mother operated a travel agency. A precocious child, she was accepted at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools [16] at the marguois of fifteen. She margjlis the University of Wisconsin to study biology under Hans Ris and Walter Plaut, her supervisor, and graduated in with an MS in genetics and zoology.

Her first publication was with Plaut, on the genetics of Euglenapublished in in the Journal of Protozoology. Before margulia could complete her dissertation, she was offered research associateship and then lecturership at Brandeis University in Massachusetts in It was while working there that she obtained her PhD from the University of California, Berkeley in She was promoted to Associate Professor into full Professor inand to University Professor in marguls She was Distinguished Professor of Biology in In she transferred to the Department of Geosciences at Amherst to become Distinguished Professor of Geosciences “with great delight”, [22] the post which she held until her death.

Lynn Margulis – Wikipedia

Margulis married astronomer Carl Sagan in soon after she got her bachelor’s degree. Sagan was then a graduate student in physics at the University of Chicago. Their ,argulis ended injust before she completed her PhD. They had two sons, Dorion Saganwho later became a popular science writer and her collaborator, and Jeremy Sagan, software developer and founder of Sagan Technology. Inshe married Thomas N.


Overview | Gaia Theory

No one can do it—something has to go. She was a religious agnostic[15] and a staunch evolutionist.

But she totally rejected the modern evolutionary synthesis[11] and said: I am not maegulis neo-Darwinist! I recalled an earlier experience, when I realized that I wasn’t a gaua Jew.

Although I greatly admire Darwin’s contributions and agree with most of his theoretical analysis and I am a Darwinist, I am not a neo-Darwinist. Margulis died on November 22, at home in AmherstMassachusettsfive days after suffering a hemorrhagic stroke. Weathering constant criticism of her ideas for decades, Margulis was famous for her tenacity in pushing her theory forward, despite the opposition she faced at the time.

InEnglish evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins had this to say about Lynn Margulis and her work:. I greatly admire Lynn Margulis’s sheer courage and stamina in sticking by the endosymbiosis theory, and carrying it through from being an unorthodoxy to an orthodoxy.

I’m referring to the theory that the eukaryotic cell is a symbiotic union of primitive prokaryotic cells. This is one of the great achievements of twentieth-century evolutionary biology, and I greatly admire her for it. Margulis opposed competition-oriented views of evolution, stressing the importance of symbiotic or cooperative relationships between species. She later formulated a theory that proposed symbiotic relationships between organisms of different phyla or kingdoms as the driving force of evolutionand explained genetic variation as occurring mainly through transfer of nuclear information between bacterial cells or viruses and eukaryotic cells.

Margulis also held a negative view matgulis certain interpretations of Neo-Darwinism that she felt were excessively focused on competition between organisms, as she believed that gaiq will ultimately judge them as comprising “a minor twentieth-century religious sect within the sprawling religious persuasion of Anglo-Saxon Biology.

Neo-Darwinism, which haia on [the slow accrual of mutations by gene-level natural selection], is in a complete funk. Margulis initially sought out the advice of Lovelock for her own research: I noticed that all kinds of bacteria produced gases.

Oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, ammonia—more than thirty different gases are given off by the bacteria whose evolutionary history I was keen to reconstruct. Why did every scientist I asked believe that atmospheric oxygen was a biological product but the other atmospheric gases—nitrogen, methane, sulfur, and so on—were not?

Lovelock believed that the gases in the atmosphere were biological. Margulis met with Lovelock, who explained his Gaia hypothesis to her, and very soon they began an intense collaborative effort on the concept. Like other early presentations of Lovelock’s idea, the Lovelock-Margulis paper seemed to give living organisms complete agency in creating planetary self-regulation, whereas later, as the idea matured, this planetary-scale self-regulation was recognized as an emergent property of the Earth systemlife and its physical environment taken together.

In her book Symbiotic PlanetMargulis explored the relationship between Gaia and her work on symbiosis. Sincelife on earth was classified into five kingdomsas introduced by Robert Whittaker.

She rejected the three-domain system introduced by Carl Woese inwhich gained wide acceptance. She introduced a modified classification by which all life forms, including the newly discovered, could be integrated into the classical five kingdoms.


According to her the main problem, archaea, falls under the kingdom Prokaryotae alongside bacteria in contrast to the three-domain system, which treats archaea as a higher taxon than kingdom, or the six-kingdom system, which holds that it is a separate kingdom.

The Life maggulis Legacy of a Scientific Rebelcommentators again and again depict her as a modern embodiment of the “scientific rebel”, [5] akin to Freeman Dyson ‘s essay, The Scientist as Rebela tradition Dyson saw embodied in Benjamin Franklinand which he believed to be essential to good giaa.

The following describes two of these controversies. Invia a then-standard publication-process lybn as “communicated submission” which bypassed traditional peer reviewshe was instrumental in getting the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PNAS to publish a paper by Donald I. Williamson rejecting “the Darwinian assumption that larvae and their adults evolved from a single common ancestor.

What it may do is broaden the discussion on how metamorphosis works and PNAS stated that the decision had nothing to do with the Williamson controversy. Resurgence of ‘the great imitator’?

In a Discover Magazine interview which was published less than six months before her death, Margulis explained to writer Dick Teresi her reason for interest in the topic of “AIDS” paper: However, in the Discover Magazine marggulis Margulis said that “the set of symptoms, or syndrome, presented by syphilitics overlaps completely with another syndrome: Margulis argued that the September 11 attacks were a “false-flag operation, which has been used to justify the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq as well as unprecedented assaults on From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

ChicagoIllinoisU. Amherst, MassachusettsU. The standard author abbreviation Margulis is used to indicate this individual as the author when citing a zoological name. Ferguson, University of Colorado – Denver.

Retrieved September 16, The New York Times. Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 29 January The Life and Legacy of a Scientific Rebel.

New York, New York: Chapter 7 in The Third Culture: Science’s Unruly Earth Mother”. From Gaia to Selfish Genes: Retrieved 19 December Discover Magazine April Retrieved 22 July We Have Never Been Individuals”. The Quarterly Review of Biology.

Retrieved 14 September Encyclopedia of World Scientists Revised ed. Retrieved 18 December University of Chicago Magazine. Archived from the original on 23 July Encyclopedia of World Biography.

A to Z of biologists. The Embryo Project Encyclopedia. National Center for Science Education. Archived from the original on Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 20 December American Journal of Botany. Journal of Theoretical Biology. The Ages of Gaia: A Biography of Our Living Earth. January”New concepts of kingdoms or organisms. Evolutionary relations are better represented by new classifications than by the traditional two kingdoms”Science