Psicología de la Personalidad. 2. Trabajó al principio sobre inteligencia, proponiendo la existencia de una inteligencia fluida y una inteligencia cristalizada. Raymond Cattell. xilenasanchezpallares. Raymond Cattell. La distinción entre inteligencia fluida y cristalizada. Xilena Y. Sánchez P. Biografía. Nació 20 de. A inteligência fluida foi medida pelo teste das Matrizes Progressivas de Raven e pelo Cattell’s free-culture test, a inteligência cristalizada foi medida pela Escala.

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The relationship of Eysenck’s Giant Three with fluid and crystallized intelligence and learning potential among adolescents. Universiti of Sarajevo – Bosnia and Herzegovina. Personality traits were measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Junior. The results are consistent with the findings of other studies in which moderate correlations between personality traits and intelligence have been established.

Psychoticism, Extraversion and Lay scale are related to fluid and crystallized intelligence measurements. The correlation between personality traits and learning potential is lower in comparison with the correlations between personality traits and fluid and crystallized intelligence. The results gained in our research are partly in accordance with Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham’s two-level conceptual framework. Namely, we are prone to interpret Extraversion as personality trait that, except for being related to intelligence test performance, has a long-term effect on intelligence development, prior through sociability and activity.

The results of our research point out to the assumption that dynamic intelligence testing method decreases the correlation between personality traits and intellectual skills, defined as learning potential.

In addition, measurements obtained by dynamic intelligence testing are the additional explanatory constructs that can contribute to the explanation of the correlation between personality and intelligence. Sociability and activity, referred to as the components of Extraversion and the absence of Psychoticism, are positively related to new experience, greater stimulation, and higher levels of cognitive stimulation, which, in turn, may result in higher levels of cognitive aptitude.

In general, pro-social behaviour pattern contributes to greater involvement in seeking for environmental resources which could foster cognitive development. Personality traits, Fluid intelligence, Crystallized intelligence, Learning potential. Los rasgos de personalidad fueron medidos por el Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

Los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con los hallazgos de otros estudios, en los cuales las correlaciones moderadas entre los rasgos de personalidad y la inteligencia han sido establecidas.

Rasgos de personalidad, Inteligencia fluida, Inteligencia cristalizada, Potencial de aprendizaje. Despite the relatively huge body of theoretical knowledge and results of empirical investigation, many leading differential psychologies assume that it is worthy to investigate the relationship between personality and intelligence.

According to Stankov, Boyle and Cattell studies on personality and intelligence more significantly contribute to the explanation of social life than many other psychological research areas. According to Saklofske and Zeidnerthe rationale for efforts to integrate personality and intelligence arises from the following premises: Authors’ demands for investigating the relationship between personality and intelligence studies is an understandable consequence of their practical application in many areas of human activities.

Besides, it is impossible to elude the question of position and cognitive abilities role in models and theories of personality; without cognitive abilities the personality coherence and the continuity of its functioning cannot be understood. Detailed review of research results and of the interpretation of relationship between personality and intelligence could be found at Saklofske and ZeidnerSternberg and RuzgisCollis and Messick and Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnhamand in meta-analytical studies of Ackerman and Heggestad and Austin et al.

In studies of the relationship between intelligence and personality trait the most frequent results are low to moderate coefficients of correlation between intelligence and the Big Five dimensions. The results of research on the correlation between Extraversion and intelligence are inconsistent; in some studies the authors report a positive correlation e.

Among the Big Five personality traits, Agreeableness is the least correlated with intelligence. Ackerman and Heggestad determined positive, low and statistically insignificant coefficients of correlation between Agreeableness and intelligence.

However, a meta-analytical study by Austin et al. One of the first explanations of the relationship between intelligence and personality was proposed by Spearmanaccording to whom: Spearman reported that general intelligence was positively related to a number of ”character” traits, such as perseverance, conscientiousness, cheerfulness.

Wechsler assumed intelligence as manifestation of personality in general, and that the particular affective and motivational factors are an integral part of intelligence Wechsler, According to Eysenck personality is manifested in cognitive ability ”through the intermediary of cortical arousal” p. Brody states the following explanations of correlation between personality and intelligence: Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnhamproposed a two-level conceptual framework for understanding the results found in investigations of the relationship between the five broad personality traits and fluid and crystallized intelligence.


The first level of the model refers to the relationship between ability as test performance output measured directly and Neuroticism and Extraversion, while the second level of model refers to relationship between ability as a latent variable which refers immeasurable capacity and Conscientiousness and Openness to new experiences.

Extraverted persons were more successful in time-limited tests, while the introverts were more successful in those tasks that were not time-limited and needed introspection. Conscientiousness and Openness have long-term effects on the development of intellectual abilities and are referred as the “investment traits”.

In two studies Moutafi et al. In order to explain such results the authors proposed a compensation hypothesis, according to which comparatively lower capability in competitive surroundings is compensated with higher levels of Conscientiousness.

Besides, it is possible that intelligent individuals do not become more conscientious over time because they rely on abilities that are sufficient for the execution of every-day cognitive tasks. An important element of two level model is subjectively assessed intelligence SAIsubjective indicators of ability.

As Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham proposed, SAI should be considered as a mediating variable between personality and intelligence. Overview of the current research.

Despite the relatively huge body of empirical evidence of the relationship between personality and intelligence, few recent empirical studies have generally found little or no relationship between the two. For instance, in their review of empirical relationships between personality and intelligence, Brebner and Stough concluded that these two broad constructs are not related with some exception, like speed-related factors and Eysenck’s measure of psychoticism and intelligence.

Hofstee draws similar general conclusions. Nevertheless, most studies on this topic assume that more empirical research is needed to enlarge our understanding of the nature of relationships between personality and ability.

Much of the extent research on personality and cognitive ability has been conducted on adults. Considering the significance of adolescence as a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood, the demand for research of the relationship between personality and intelligence is especially significant. Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical changes, reproductive maturity, searching for identity, and ability to think abstractly and to use scientific reasoning developments.

There are different quantitative and qualitative differences in personality and intellectual functioning between adults and adolescents. For example, the personality in adulthood is more stable and less complex than in the childhood. Thus researchers found, instead of five, seven factors at children in the research carried out in U.

Instead of Extraversion, researchers have found two distinct factors of sociability and activity, and instead of the Neuroticism factor they have found two distinct factors from fearfulness and irritability.

Originally distinct dimensions are joined to form a more general one, integrated personality dimension which we recognize in an adult person; this shows that the personality expression change during the development.

Further, intelligence takes pluralistic forms across development, depending on the ability and the context in which that ability is examined. Intelligence functioning is also highly variable throughout development. Cognitive maturity in adolescents is characterized by attainment of formal operation Piaget,capacity for abstract thinking which gives adolescents opportunity to deal with abstraction, test hypotheses and see infinite possibilities.

As conceptual framework for understanding the relationships between personality traits and intelligence, the two-level model of Chamorro-Premuzica and Furnhama two-level conceptual framework is used. Considering that psychoticism of Eysenck’s model corresponds to low Conscientiousness and to low Openness for new experiences, it seems reasonable to substitute these two Big Five model traits with the psychoticism trait of Eysenck’s model. The next aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis based on Eysenck and Eysenck arousal theory, which states that extraverts would be better than introverts on speed tests, whereas introverts can be expected to outperform extraverts on verbal tests and tasks that require insight and reflection.

Inconsistencies in the relationship between psychometric intelligence and Extraversion are still far from clear understanding and remain an interesting topic of research for differential psychologists. Therefore, we decided to replicate previous researches and to investigate differences in relationships between extraversion and fluid intelligence measured by speed test and extraversion and fluid intelligence measured by strength test, and extraversion and crystallized intelligence measured by vocabulary test.


Finally, we were interested in the relationship between personality traits and learning potential. Learning potential measurement is the result of learning potential assessment, rapidly developing approach of interactive, test-intervention-retest model of psychological assessment, with important practical usage especially in the field of education.

In literature, the traditional way of exploring intelligence is referred to as static measurement. Learning potential assessment and dynamic test of intelligence are two terms that appear to be used interchangeably in literature. Sternberg and Grigorenko define dynamic testing of intelligence as test plus some instructional intervention. According to Guthke, Beckmann and Dobat dynamic testing is a common term that includes different assessment procedures, such as border testing, learning potential assessment, interactive dynamic assessment, learning test concept.

Considering some of the major characteristics of dynamic testing of intelligence e. Carlson and Wiedel are among the first who introduced personality as variable in dynamic testing of intelligence. They assumed that the low ability test product is the result, among others, of personality variables set, such as test anxiety, personality traits and self-esteem.

Budoff in his research on children with low IQ showed that children with greater learning potential are more sociable, show greater motivation for accomplishment, and are less rigid and impulsive than the children with similar IQ but with lower learning potential. In line with previous studies, two sets of hypotheses can be stated: In accordance with the two-level model and the results of previous research we expect that the correlation between PEN personality dimensions and fluid and crystallized intelligence will be statistically significant.

In this sense, we also expect: In addition, we expect that the personality traits will significantly contribute to the explanation of results of variability on intelligence measurements. In line with theoretical expectations according to which the dynamic testing of intelligence decreases the effects of personality on cognitive performance, we expect zero correlations between PEN personality dimensions and learning potential.


The study was conducted on a group of students of the sixth grade of five elementary schools in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. They represent a non-verbal test for the evaluation of the ability to understand complex situations, find meaning in events and of rational perception and thinking. According to Carpenter, Just and Shell Cristalizdaa Progressive Matrices measure analytical intelligence, that is the ability to reason and produce crristalizada solution for problems involving new pieces of information, without extensive use of an explicit store of declarative knowledge.

Work time was not limited. Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale Raven et al.

Horn y Cattell: inteligencia fluida y cristalizada (16)

It consists of 68 items divided into two segments: Series A gap filling and Series B selection of the correct answer from several offered. The Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale allows the assessment of the ability to store and recall information and knowledge that is accumulated over time by the individual from experiences at home, school, or in the environment and therefore is based on the extensive use of declarative knowledge.

With regard to definition of crystallized intelligence Stankov,crystallized abilities are typically measured by vocabulary test. Series A gap filling was used in the present research. It consists of four subtests: Series, Classification, Matrices, and Topology. The number of items varies from 8, contained in the Topology subtest, to 14 contained in the Classification subtest.

cattll Cattell and Cattell reports research results conducted in France, according to which correlations of subtests with g-factor number between 0,78 and 0,83 and acceptably reliability typed test-retest 0,82 and 0,85 and split-half 0,70 do 0, Time for every subtest was limited.

Through training, directed to strategy learning, processes or using the skills needed to solve cognitive problems, cognitive modification is being determined. Training material consists of patterns that represent 68 matrice problems task and solution for every problem and few orientation patterns. Problems are grouped in two levels. Problems such as those present in substitution of elements by rows and columns and require their mutual combination.

Before and after training, Raven’s progressive matrices are being used. On second occasion, parallel form of SPM was used. The increase of scores on Raven’s test after the training, i.