(This article originally appeared in Management Science, April , Volume 43, Number 4, pp. , published by The Institute of. (This article originally appeared in Management Science, April , Volume 43, Number 4, pp. –, published by The Institute of Management Sciences.). Information distortion in a supply chain: the bullwhip effect, Article. Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. · Citation Count: · Downloads (cumulative): n/a.

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About project SlidePlayer Terms of Service. Subramanian June 19, In push ordering, a company experiences regular surges in demand. The irony is that these variations are induced by price fluctuations that the manufacturers and the distributors set up themselves.

The Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chains

Understanding the causes of the bullwhip effect can help managers find strategies to mitigate it. The following inventory policy is optimal to the problem: In addition, the counterstrategies we described earlier are useful. For example, if you are a manager who has to determine how much to order from a supplier, you use a simple method to do demand forecasting, such as exponential smoothing. Further, the training manager also mentioned that in their training programmes, more attention is given to develop group synergy, confidence and collaboration.

When the product’s price returns to normal, they stop buying until the inventory is depleted. HRD practices are shaped to a certain extent by organization-specific characteristics. New Technology and Industrial Relations Unpublished. Registration Forgot your password? Additionally, some employees believe that this personal development gained from the company is subject to attitudes, degree of propensity to change and the personality traits of the individual. First level or the requirement is strategic competencies, second is the functional competencies and the final level is individual development.


In one scheme, the manufacturer allocates the amount in proportion to the amount ordered.

Information Distortion in a Supply Chain: “The Bullwhip Effect”

Add a comment Cancel reply You must sign in to post a comment. All the employees mentioned that, the company could do so as the financial ability at that time was very high. To solve the problem of distorted information, companies need to first understand what creates the bullwhip effect so they can counteract it. For example, in the consumer products industry, this practice is known as vendor-managed inventory VMI tbe a continuous replenishment program CRP.

Artifacts and behaviour are the overt aspects of the culture. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policyincluding cookie policy. Through this particular function CTC management motivates their employees via their families. Using EDI, companies such informatioon Nabisco perform paperless, computer-assisted ordering CAOand, consequently, customers order more frequently.

Industrial Relations, 45 4 When an upstream company receives consumption data on a fixed, periodic schedule from its downstream customers, it will not be surprised by an unusually large batched order when there is a demand surge.

My presentations Profile Feedback Log out. Of course, this variability is higher than the demands the company itself faces. In this circumstance, low acceptance of power distance may be expected. Therefore, this CA is being used by both parties to bargain their demands.

Multinational Business Review, Fall. Inventory reductions of up to 25 percent are common in these alliances. The management and the operational employees have identified that, teamwork is one of their major strategies of achievements.

The customer’s buying pattern does ni reflect its consumption pattern. As and when there is an organizational restructuring with business downsizing and introducing new technology, workforce reduction is a crystal-clear phenomenon.

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Manufacturers and distributors periodically have special promotions like price discounts, quantity discounts, coupons, rebates, and so on. Information Distortion in a Supply Chain: Now some manufacturers induce their distributors to order assortments of different products. Sometimes, suppliers give their best pricing for FTL orders. Orders placed by a retailer tend to be much more variable than the customer demand seen by the retailer.


The use of third-party logistics companies also helps make small batch replenishments economical. Accordingly, two types of HRM practices can be identified. Therefore, studying the aforementioned behavioural practices in order to improve the productivity of an organization is of timely importance.

When customers spread their periodic orders or replenishments evenly over time, they can reduce the negative effect of batching. The Importance of Contextual Factors. For a theoretical treatment of this subject, see: For this category ten employees from production workers were used who differ from one another in terms of work experience.

A Mandate for Food Manufacturers? When Hewlett-Packard HP executives examined the sales of one of its printers at a major reseller, they found that there were, as expected, some fluctuations over time.

The issue of generalizability is the key distinguishing factor between qualitative and quantitative research. For an example of such fluctuations in demand, see Figure 2. If retailers suspect that a product will be short in supply, each retailer will issue an exaggerated order more than their actual needs, in order to secure more units of the product.

Finally, as we noted before, long resupply lead times can aggravate the bullwhip effect.