Hyperinfection syndrome should be considered a potential medical emergency. Thus, treatment should be started immediately if this is being considered. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection remain quiescent indefinitely, immunosuppression can lead to the hyperinfection syndrome, which is. Whereas in chronic strongyloidiasis and in hyperinfection syndrome the larvae are limited to the GI tract and the lungs, in disseminated.

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The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Unsuspected strongyloidiasis in hospitalised elderly patients with and without eosinophilia. Frequently, larvae can be seen by a simple wet-mount in fluid from a bronchoalveolar lavage BAL.

Concurrently, the renal function started to deteriorate. IL-3 Interleukin-3 has been shown in multiple previous studies as a potent mast cell synthesis stimulator. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in the immunocompromised host.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. Finally, given the cost of laboratory investigations for S. In mass prevention campaigns for which the World Health Organization WHO has determined hypeinfection the benefit of treatment outweighs the risk, WHO allows use of albendazole in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of hyperinfetion.

Epidemiology Though parasitic infections are rare in the developed world, sporadic cases of strongyloidiasis, toxocariasis, and giardiasis happen especially in the endemic areas. Owing to increased hyperinfecgion of developing disseminated disease or hyperinfection syndrome, early detection and treatment of strongyloidiasis are extremely important.

It is also reported that infected patients elicit a decreased lymphocyte blastogenic response to larval Strongyloides stercoralis antigens suggesting presence of factors in the serum of patients that are inhibitory to the function of cell mediated immunity hypefinfection 8486 ].


Minimal change nephrotic syndrome in a patient with strongyloidiasis. It is labor intensive and dependent on operator skill.

Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome and Disseminated Disease

Background In United States, strongyloidiasis is the most important nematode infection in humans with a tendency towards chronic persistent infection and with special huperinfection features of autoinfection, hyperinfection involving pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems, and disseminated infection involving other organs [ 1 – 4 ]. Some experts argue that the mere presence of eosinophilia is enough reason to search for this parasite.

Infected individuals may experience irritation at the site of skin penetration by larvae, followed by tracheal irritation or dry cough and ultimately gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, or anorexia.

Streptococcus bovis bacteremia and meningitis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis colitis in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Chronicity in Strongyloides stercoralis infections: As humans differ from rodents and experimental models, IgE-mediated hyperinfeftion immunity is controversial [ 91 ]. The differential diagnosis at the time included pulmonary edema and ARDS; however, aggressive fluid removal did not lead to either clinical or radiological improvement.

Though the acute initial manifestations are not well described [ 15 ], the following symptoms are noted in some human infections: These serological tests are also shown to be useful in the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis even in immunocompromised individuals [ 68 ]. This patient was diagnosed with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. Fulminating strongyloidiasis complicating Indian kala-azar. Transplanted patients have unique regimens that increase their risk of dissemination. Maltreatment of Strongyloides infection: This means that the parasite never reaches the soil; instead, it re-enters the host via enteral circulation endoautoinfection or perianal skin exoautoinfection.

The duration of treatment of hyperinfection hyperinfecion is variable. The life cycle of Strongyloides stercoralis is distributed between the free-living and parasitic cycles [ 1014 ].


On examination, he was an obese male with periorbital edema. Clin Microbiol Rev ; Rectal biopsy disclosed chronic inflammation with eosinophilic infiltrates; however, no parasites were identified.

Funding was received from the National Institutes of Health. Strongyloides infections are difficult to eradicate completely mainly because of autoinfection.

Complete dyndrome count showed hemoglobin of 8.

Am J Clin Oncol. Open in a separate window.

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Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. He developed acute respiratory failure and progressed to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage owing to disseminated strongyloidiasis immediately. Here they penetrate the alveolar membrane to become air borne, ascend the tracheobronchial tree, are swallowed by the host, reach the small intestine, molt twice more to become adult parthenogenetic females. Strongyloidiasis was first described by Fulleborn in [ 5 ].

Strongyloides stercoralis under the microscope. Central nervous system Strongyloides stercoralis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: One to two days of ivermectin is the treatment of choice for chronic, asymptomatic infection. The goals of treatment are investigated for the different infection states. Corticosteroids have a particularly strong and specific association with the development of hyper-infection syndrome and dissemination.

Complicated and fatal Strongyloides infection in Canadians: This requires physicians in the endemic areas to be more aggressive in their investigational workup for eosinophilia.