Geography and Foreign Policy, I – Volume 32 Issue 1 – Nicholas J. Spykman. GEOGRAPHY AND FOREIGN POLICY, I NICHOLAS J. SPYKMAN. Yale University. “La politique de toutes les puissances est dans leur geographie,”‘ conceded. Nicholas John Spykman was an American political scientist who was one of the founders of the In his writings on geography and foreign policy, Spykman was somewhat of a geographical determinist. Since geography was “the most.

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But the geography of a state cannot be ignored by men who formulate its policy. Every government official responsible for policy should read it once a year for the next twenty years—even if he may not agree with some of the remedies proposed.

Nicholas J. Spykman

Contrary to Mackinder, he believed that geography gave the U. On one hand, leading scholars in strategic studies, such as Colin S. He could be considered as a disciple and critic of both geostrategists Alfred Mahanof the United States Navyand Halford Mackinderthe British geographer. Spykman predicted that Japan would lose the Pacific War polivy that China and Russia would remain to struggle against eac other over boundaries.

Spykman sees that its importance to be the reason that the Rimland will be crucial to containing the Heartland, but Mackinder had believed that the Outer or Insular Foreiyn would be the most important factor in containing the Heartland. Retrieved from ” https: He explained his geostrategy and argued that the balance of power in Eurasia ane affected US security.

Presciently, Spykman also foresaw the irresistible rise of the Pacific Ocean as a key route for world trade.

Nicholas J. Spykman – Wikipedia

Spykman agrees that the Heartland offers a uniquely-defensive position, but that is all Spykman grants its occupier. His work on geopolitics apykman geostrategy led him to be to known as the ” godfather of containment. The Politics of Writing Global Space. As a result, the theoretical and analytical work of Dutch-born American scholar Nicholas J.

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In the late s, German geopolitical science was flourishing, especially because of the Munich School and its widely read journal Die Zeitschrift fuer Geopolitik. He worked as a journalist in various parts of the world during much of the s and also served as a diplomatic assistant for the Netherlands in Egypt and the Dutch East Indies.

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Rediscovering Spykman – the Rimland, Geography of Peace and Foreign Policy

He was married to the children’s novelist E. Share on Facebook Share.

Spykman states that historically, battles have pitted either Britain and Rimland allies against Russia and its Rimland allies or Britain and Russia together against a dominating Rimland power. April Learn how and when to remove this template message.

In the industrial-technological era of the Cold War, the two superpowers were very large states: On the other hand, comparatively small countries with large industrial bases could still rank among the medium-sized powers, like Germany, Japan, France, the UK, or Israel, but they could certainly not compete with the giants for world domination.

For Collins, territorial resource and geo-positional advantages were ;olicy two fundamental geopolitical advantages of world power, and they worked cumulatively over time. Strategically, there was no difference between Germany dominating all the way to the Ural geographt Russia controlling all the way to Germany, and as both scenarios were equally threatening to the US.

Views Read Edit View history. Spykman’s work is based on assumptions similar to Mackinder, the unity of world politics and the unity of the world sea, but extends it to include the unity of the air.


While Spykman accepts the first two as defined, he rejects the simple grouping the Asian countries into one “monsoon land.

Therefore, British, Russian, and US power would play the key roles in controlling the European litoral and there the essential power relations of the world.

Rediscovering Spykman – the Rimland, Geography of Peace and Foreign Policy |

Mr Bordonaro is currently writing an essay on the origins and evolution of Anglo-American geopolitical thought. There are two offshore continents flanking Eurasia: Spykman has been less accurately and less deeply reconsidered. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Concerned with the balance of powergeograpuy argued that isolationismwhich relied on the oceans to protect the United States ” hemispheric ” or “quarter defense”was bound to fail.

Examples of strategies implemented to overcome natural barriers and to polic territorial potential were found by Spykman in ancient, medieval, and modern history, in European as well as in American or Asian history Spykman The implications fofeign the geographical and ecological settings for human aggressiveness and expansionism have been also analysed by Bradley Thayer in his groundbreaking work on evolutionism and international relations Thayer Again, Spykman differs from Mackinder, who sees Eurasian wars as historically pitting the Heartland against the sea powers for control of the rimland, establishing a land power-sea power opposition.