A escala de Waterlow na úlcera por pressão em pessoas com lesão medular: uma tecnologia assistencial de enfermagem. Waterlow’s Scale on pressure ulcers. PDF | OBJETIVO: Comparar las escalas de riesgo para úlcera por presión de Norton, Braden y Waterlow entre pacientes en estado crítico. MÉTODOS: Estudio . To evaluate the association between the scores of the Waterlow, .. da concordância na aplicação da Escala de Braden interobservadores.

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Waterlow score

The variables were presented as absolute frequencies and percentages, as well as measures of central tendency. The Waterlow scale has evaluative aspects of great relevance for the study of hospitalized patients. Nowadays, there is an average of 40 risk assessmentscales for PU. Age, smoking status, diabetes and hypertension were associated with scores on the Waterlow, Braden and Norton scales.

Older people have decreased adipose tissue and collagen fibres with a reduced blood supply from the decreased capillaries in the esccala, which interferes with adequate blood perfusion [ 25 ].

Among those patients who developed two PU,four injuries were sacral and heel; nine were sacral andoccipital; and three were heel and occipital pressureulcers. Pioneira Thomson Learning; However, it is necessary, beyond the nurse abilities, theadoption of various efficient instruments to this workenvironment.

The prevention and pressure ulcer risk scoreevaluation study. The fact that our study was carried out at a specializedservice of emergency care on traumatology andneurology, which is normally associated to trafficaccidents involving young male individuals, has perhapsdetermined such difference.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. The application of the Waterlow scale, performed in this study, demonstrated efficacy and sensibility to evaluate risk factors to pressure ulcers in spinal cord injured hospitalized persons. Examiningthe validity of pressure ulcer risk assessment scales: Patients in study weredivided into three groups, according to their evaluations: The role of the nurse in assessing the risk supports integral and individualized care for the patient and family 14 and provides essential information for the care plan, ensuring effective multidisciplinary communication 6.


So, in spite of being valid, practical and efficientinstruments, it is necessary to base the subjects’ assessmentmainly on the health professional clinical knowledge andexperience.

A escala de Waterlow aplicada em pessoas com lesão medular

Each patient was evaluated, simultaneously, by three nurses, each of whom was responsible for the application of only one of the scales. Based on thisframework, the subjects were discriminated as follows: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. A total of 87 patients were admitted to the units during the study period; of these 4 were excluded due to already having ulcers at the time of data collection, 6 for not having laboratory tests performed, and 22 for not having the minimum of 3 consecutive evaluations.

Easily identifiable, PUfinancial costs are constantly mentioned in publicationswhich do not consider the social damages which are,most of the time, irreversible. The sample was selected based on a non-probability sampling method with selection for convenience. The current paper presents some limitations. This study permitted to know deeply the most important risks to pressure ulcers in spinal cord injured patients using the Waterlow scale. Only fivepapers were found in which these scales were analyzedtogether: The Norton scale consists of five risk factors that have been classified into scores that provide the final classification of risk for PU, as follows: Regarding the use of the risk assessment scales, it was found that, according to the Waterlow Scale, the patients obtained a mean score of Regarding the reasons for hospitalization in the ICU, there were 41 The development of pressure ulcers is often rapid and causes complications for the hospitalized individual, as well as prolonging the treatment and rehabilitation, this diminishes the quality of life, causes pain and increases mortality 7.

Even though, nurses at theseinstitutions need to identify and understand each medicalspecialty and the PU risk correlations, in order to act onthe intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to PU. For the numerical variables, the mean and standard deviation were determined.

The study found that the incidence of pressure ulcers in the study population was high. It was recorded the day on which the PU appearedin those patients who have developed this injury, as wellas, the ulcer stage and location.


To evaluate the association between the scores of the Waterlow, Braden, and Norton scales and clinical and social characteristics in critically ill patients.

Altogether, patients have had 47 PU at differentlocations and stages, with an average of 1. Data was entered twice and it was storage on anExcel program data basis.

Age, tobacco use, diabetes and hypertension are associated with waterkow risk of developing pressure ulcers in ICU patients.

The intensive care unit ICU is intended for clinically unstable patients who need intermittent care and technology to evaluate and control their vital functions [ 1 ]. The present study has some limitations.

Pressure Ulcer Risk Evaluation in Critical Patients: Clinical and Social Characteristics

The parameters used in the calculation of the sample were as follows: Predicting pressure ulcer risk with the modified Braden,Braden, and Norton scales in acute care hospitals inMainland China.

This result indicates the esccala for nurses to develop health education to prevent PU in this population. In other publications about chronic patients the PUincidence happened in 8, 4 and 10 days, respectively The most significant risk factor to pressure ulcers in that patient was the physical mobility damaged linked to the time of hospitalization.

Thus, the study proved to be effective in the evaluation of risk factors and also to gather information on nursing guidance received by patients. Therefore, the majority of the patients were classified as having a moderate escalx for developing PUs.

The age averageand median were Conclusion The study found that the incidence of pressure ulcers in the study population was high. Risk assessment scales establish, through the score, the probability of the occurrence of PU in a patient, based on a series of parameters considered risk factors Am J Crit Care.