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Maternal intelligence-mental health and child neuropsychological development at age 14 months. To examine the relationship between maternal intelligence-mental health and neuropsychological development at age 14 months in a normal population, taking into account maternal occupational social class and education.
Cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed at 14 months using Bayley Scales cartell Infant Development. Maternal intelligence and mental health were assessed by the Ee and Cattell test and the General Health Questionnaire respectively. Cattwll observed a crude association between maternal intelligence and cognitive development in children at 14 months but this association disappeared when maternal education was included.
The associations were stratified by maternal education and occupational social class. Within the manual maternal occupational social class, there was a significant difference in cognitive development between children whose mothers scored in the highest tertile of maternal IQ and those whose mothers scored in the lowest tertile.
In contrast, no differences were observed among children whose mothers were in the non-manual occupational social class. The association between intantil intelligence and child cognitive development differed by occupational social class. While this association was not confounded by education or other variables in manual intelugencia social classes, maternal education explained this association among advantaged occupational social classes.
El desarrollo cognitivo y psicomotor fue evaluado mediante la escala Bayley de desarrollo infantil. The developing brain is exceptionally sensitive to environmental influences, such as chemical agents, nutrition and medical care, as well as to education, experiences and the social environment.
Early parental influences are crucial in the early stages of brain maturation, and are specifically related to sensitivity and early cognitive stimulation. A fundamental characteristic of brain development is that environmental experiences are as important as inherited factors.
The same study also found that socioeconomic position and the domestic environment were positively associated with child neuropsychological development. Income, education and occupation have been found to be positively associated with better parenting. In contrast, maternal depression may be considered a risk factor for child development, including impairments in the areas of social-emotional development, behavior, and cognitive development.
The aim of this study was to disentangle the direct effects of maternal IQ and mental health on early ve neuropsychological development. To reduce residual confounding in the associations, and because of the strong relationship between maternal intelligence and mental health and socioeconomic variables, maternal education and occupational social class were treated as confounders and potential effect modifiers in the analyses.
Moreover, a large number of potentially confounding variables, especially those related to child stimulation, infanitl also included. Between July and Julypregnant women who visited the public health center of Sabadell for an ultrasound scan in the first trimester were recruited.
These women were then followed-up during pregnancy. A total of The main analyses in this report are ecsala on children with complete information on maternal IQ-mental health and neuropsychological development assessment. Information on maternal education, socioeconomic background, parity, alcohol consumption, dietary intake, and smoking during pregnancy was obtained intligencia questionnaires administered during pregnancy first and third trimesters.
Anthropometric measures, sex, and gestational age were obtained at birth from clinical records. Data on breastfeeding were based on questionnaires administered intellgencia the mothers at 6 and 14 months after delivery. Neuropsychological development was assessed at 14 months range 12 to 17 months using the intleigencia and psychomotor scales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development BSID. Four-hundred and fifty-nine children were assessed by psychologist 1 and children by psychologist 2.
The mental scale consisted of items that assessed age-appropriate cognitive development in areas such as performance ability, memory, and first verbal learning. The psychomotor scale consisted of 81 items assessing fine and gross motor development.
Index scores were computed based on the assumption of a normal distribution with a mean of corresponding to the mean of the raw scores, and a standard deviation of To limit inter-observer variability, a strict protocol was applied, including inter-observer-training and three sets of quality controls inter-observer reliability tests done during the fieldwork. The inter-rater reliability was estimated by an intra-class correlation of 0. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to determine the internal consistency of the mental and psychomotor scales.
The alpha coefficient was 0. Two maternal factors were considered in this study: Maternal IQ was assessed by two psychologists using the 2 and 3 scales of Factor “G” of Cattell and Cattell, 24 which is a nonverbal test of fluid intelligence.
Mean and standard deviation data of our sample were used to compute index scores assuming a normal distribution. Raw scores were standardized to a mean of with a standard deviation of Maternal mental health was assessed using the Spanish version of the General Health Questionnaire items GHQ as a self-reported questionnaire.
The score was used to generate a total score ranging from 0 to 36, where higher scores indicated poorer mental health. For the GHQ, 79 mothers were randomly selected to calculate the 1-month test-retest reliability using the Kappa value.
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We obtained Kappa coefficients of agreement of around 0. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients showed acceptable internal congruence 0. Paternal IQ and mental health were also assessed using the same methodologies, but IQ was available for only participants. Educational level infantll defined using three categories: Occupational social class was coded from the longest-held job during the pregnancy or, if the mother did not work in this time period, the last job prior to pregnancy.
Predominant breastfeeding was defined as an infant receiving breast milk only but allowing supplementation of non-milk liquids: Univariate descriptive analysis of the neuropsychological test mental and inteligencis scales of the BSIDpredictive variables maternal IQ and mental healthsocioeconomic characteristics of the parents, and anthropometric measures of children were carried out to describe the population.
Multivariable linear regression models were built for mental and psychomotor test scores considering all potential confounding variables using backward stepwise regression methods.
Any covariate either with a p-value of less that 0. For each ee variable, we fitted three multiple linear regression models: Predictive variables were examined in tertiles taking the lowest tertile as the reference group. This categorical approach allowed us to explore the differences in infant neuropsychological development between extreme groups. To study the combined impact of both the predictive variables, we also fitted a model in which they were mutually adjusted.
Statistical analyses were done using Stata 8. The mean age of the children was Fifty-three percent were classified as belonging to a non-manual occupational social class. Paternal educational level was similar to that in mothers, but the occupational cttell class distribution was markedly different. In general, the mothers who participated in the psychological profile tests innfantil higher levels of education than those who did not participate data not shown.
For occupational social class no differences were found. A positive trend was observed in child mental test score related to maternal intelligence, but not to psychomotor scores. There was a positive trend in the distribution of maternal IQ related to maternal education and occupational social class Table 3. Mothers who had eacala university degree fscala who belonged to the non-manual occupational social class scored significantly higher in the IQ test.
The crude associations between parental and child characteristics and mental and psychomotor scales were plotted Figure 1. In the multivariate regression models, the mental test score significantly increased with higher maternal IQ; after adjusting for all potential confounders except maternal education, the association remained marginally statistically significant Table 4. However, the association disappeared when maternal education was included.
No association was observed between the mental test score and maternal mental health. No associations were found between the scores of the psychomotor tests and maternal profile variables. Paternal mental health had no effect in the models. Finally, these associations were stratified by maternal education and occupational social class Table 5. No such differences were observed, however, among children whose mothers were in the non-manual occupational social class.
Maternal mental health showed no difference between different occupational social classes. Maternal education and occupational escalq class did not modify secala relationship between maternal IQ-mental health and infant psychomotor development data not shown.
In this population-based birth cohort, the effect of maternal intelligence on child cognitive development at 14 months of age was stronger than the effect of maternal mental health; this relationship was acttell to be mostly explained by maternal education. However, in more disadvantaged occupational social classes, maternal intelligence appeared to be the best predictor of optimal child cognitive development, exceeding both maternal education and mental health.
In previous research, 13 an independent association was found between maternal IQ and the cognitive development of cattepl, along with socioeconomic status SES and the home environment. In our study, the association observed between maternal IQ and child cognitive development disappeared after adjustment for maternal education, but persisted when maternal occupational social class was included.
Some authors have pointed out that general intelligence is highly predictive of educational level. If this were the case, the scores of children in mental test scores should be strongly associated with maternal IQ and, to a lesser degree, with maternal education.
However, our data does not support such a hypothesis. Other authors 31 have pointed out that the proportion of variability in a population’s IQ that is attributable to genetic factors is unclear. We found that maternal educational attainment was strongly related to child neuropsychological development. Along with SES, low maternal education has been found to be an important predictor of neuropsychological developmental problems in different contexts.
A relationship between maternal education and dietary patterns in infancy has been found. Within manual occupation social classes, maternal IQ appears to be an important predictor of catttell cognitive development.
Inteligencia y salud mental maternas y desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil a los 14 meses de edad
The children of mothers belonging to a manual occupational social class with high scores in IQ tests scored significantly higher on the BSID mental test than the children of less intelligent mothers belonging to the same occupational social class. Previous studies have found that SES is an important predictor of neuropsychological development, especially for language and executive function.
This finding could indicate that mothers with higher intelligence have children with higher intelligence, irrespective of their educational level. By way of explanation, these mothers might offer their children a more stimulating environment within which they have greater opportunities to develop their cognitive functions. We found no association between maternal mental health and child neuropsychological development. A possible explanation could be that this study was performed in a non-clinical population in which mothers were not suffering from major depressive disorders or any other serious psychiatric disorders.
The distribution of Escapa scores had low variability and did not reveal any subclinical symptomatology. Nevertheless, throughout the school years, cognitive development inteligencis more specific and, in turn, neuropsychological testing inteligencka more precise, reliable and valid than at previous ages. No associations were found between maternal IQ and mental health and child psychomotor development at ecsala months. The psychomotor scale showed a stronger association with preterm birth, Apgar scores at 1minute, maternal work status at 14 months, and maternal age.
Very preterm infants scored significantly lower than full-term infants on the psychomotor scale of the BSID but no significant differences were found between the groups on the mental test score. A major strength of this study is its large sample size.