Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. The Dzongkha Development Commission is very pleased to present the first Dzongkha grammar with such a wide scope, and the Commission feels indebted to. Dzongkha, or Bhutanese is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national.
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In posing the question in sentence 19on the other hand, the speaker is assuming that the person to whom he is speaking was ac- tually there when Singge ate and that that person will therefore know the answer through personal observation of the event itself.
Khams Tibetan Tseku Khamba. These two Lhokpu speaking areas are separated by a ridge and represent two distinct but closely related dialects of the same language. Dzongkha The following an of the unvoice.
For example, in sentence 39 the speaker obser- ‘to continue to put in for as long as it is not yet full’. I’ yab yap father [hon;] followed by the high register tone. Com- pare the following two examples with an intransitive and a transitive verb respectively. English speakers can learn to pronounce this vowel vowel sound in Dutch kaas. Dzongkha zh is followed by the low register tone.
In addition to Dzongkha, there are twenty languages spoken grammag Bhutan. Similarly, a price or sum will q 00 00 “” S’CJ’l:! Nga hing-Hi-rang cho-lu gau-ma “l;J’ J. Certain high honorific terms are restricted in use dzkngkha the most respected individuals in the country. Chapters Two and Three. If the matter is not explained, neither will it be understood. The Dzong- ti kha progressive expresses an activity which the speaker by his own observation knows to be going on in the present.
In sentence 45the speaker reports on a claim made by the subject at some point in the past, although the speaker cannot now vouch that the subject still holds to this claim. There is grajmar special word. The speaker in 12 also uses the inferred past to express a result observed in the present of an activity which the speaker did not observe.
This system uses twenty-four letters of the Roman alphabet Q and Gra,mar are not used and four dznogkha critic marks: The Sanskrit Tibetan names of the years of the Rap- jung cycle are listed on the following pages in their formal Choke pronunciations. I’ ya may also mark a supposition or the inflected stem of the verb. Bhutanese chronometry distinguishes four sea- rijfl: The rules governing transcription and transliteration are dif- ferent, and there is no systematic or consistent way of combining the two systems.
Another loca- tive suffix FA” kha occurs in combination with a limited set of nominate, e. Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region. There are an estimated seventy-odd households in Dur, roughly two thirds of which axe Brokpa house- holds and one third Bumthangpa households.
Examples in the following chapters, as well as in the Dzongkha Language Workbook, will help illustrate the nuances of this grammatical category. A separate section in the next chapter is She’s going outside to get in the water [of the devoted to other uses of the postposition rJ. In this con- nexion it should be noted the Dzongkha dxongkha to an English adjective may be? However, the contour distinction does not exist in all dialects of Dzongkha. Dzongkha, national language of Bhutan Dzongkha is the national language of Bhutan and the native language of western Bhutan, comprising eight of the twenty districts of the kingdom.
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Information about the Dzongkha language and culture http: As pointed out above, the Bumthangpas dzongkya are called Monpa by the Brokpas of Dur. The verb stem remains uninflected before the conditional conjunction. Kha tshau-mli ‘Ema-d0 i khatshi du Mouth burn-[ep] Chillies-the spict.
So too; in Bhutan low, almost certainly derives from the same source. Similarly, in sentence 11the speaker observes that a letter has arrived for him, he was not there when the letter entered the country or was deposited into his post office box.
The tense of experienced phenomena is dzongkba with respect to a second person on those rare occasions in which the speaker reports to a second person on an activity he obser- ves this same second person performing, as in the follow- ing diagnostic observation: Nga d0 ato tamkhu thum ‘ing I now smoking drink [aux] I am smoking at the moment.
In the Chapter Three, the student will learn how the spelling of Dzongkha words in the official romanization, based on the pronunciation of the modem spoken lan- guage, correlates with traditional Dzongkha orthography and see how various traditional spellings may correspond to a single speech sound in the modem language dzongiha vf versa. Whereas the factual present expresses a fact which obtains in present time, the progressive expresses an activity in grammqr.
Moreover, the exquisite calli- graphy and beautiful Dzongkha handwriting in Chapter Two of this grammar was also provided by Gasep Karma Tshering.
One is not to smoke inside a monastery. If asked why we are not working, we’d have to say it’s because the pay isn’t enough.
D0 ato nga thaptsha-na Hi beu ‘ing Moreover, whereas the factual present in 67 states the Now I kitchen-in work do [aux] fact of the speaker’s current status as an employee in. The progressive 5. In Dzongkha ggammar language is Chalikha and Dzalakha, are quite distinct languages. Khathen-di-g 0 i kola kho-g 0 i g0 o-wacin Message-this-[gen] about he-[erg] hear-if. The following table lists these.