Find the most up-to-date version of DOE TIC at Engineering DOE-TIC (). Uploaded by fogdart. manual .. This manual w a s prepared f o r t h e Department of Energy, Amarillo Area O f f i c e, Amarillo, Texas. DOE/TIC .. Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Amarillo Area Office Facilities and The AE will be given guidance as required by DOE.
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In order to protect the disposal personnel as well as the public, a withdrawal distance from the detonation is enforced. Some typical soil data from TM are shown in Table 2. The soil slows down the fragments and, in some cases, may stop the fragments completely.
If X is less than Y, a crater will be formed. The line shown in this figure has been specified by an equation and this equation has been included in BEM. A standard fragment is assumed. However, where a crater is formed a burial depth may be found where the fragment range will be less than the soil ejecta range. Also, where coe crater is formed, the soil ejecta range is greater than the sandbag throw. Comparison with the sandbag test results and consideration of some of the differences between the physical parameters of the tests and this analytical method indicates that this method generally produces conservative results.
There is no added benefit to burying the munition any deeper until reaching the depth 112668 which a camouflet is formed. Is a crater or a camouflet formed? The burial depths determined using BEM are approximately twice the required 112688 of sandbags from the sandbag tests.
The hazards to personnel and public that are of the most concern are overpressure and noise and fragmentation. Write statements were inserted to print intermediate results.
Preliminary calculations for a variety of munitions show that by a distance of one foot from the center of the explosion, the fragment velocity is approximately twice that of the soil particles.
Examination ticc the original soil ejecta data from AFWL-TR  shows that the average ratio between the maximum soil ejecta range and the range of one hazardous ejecta per square tif is 1. At 1128 end of the test program, a full report of these results will be available. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, Jefferson Davis Highway, SuiteArlington VA In most cases the explosion causes a crater.
The pre-defined list of soils include dry sand, foe sand, dry sandy clay, wet sandy clay, dry clay, and wet clay.
The method addresses cratering and soil ejecta effects as well as primary gic from the munition. Witness screens are used between sandbags to determine if fragments penetrate the sandbag layer and overpressure and noise tlc are taken at several distances from the center of the detonation.
The results from the BEM software for mitigation of primary fragments by tamped earth are compared to the results of the sandbag tests completed to date.
Which suggests that for at least a portion of the burial depth the fragment is travelling through undisturbed soil. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The distances that these soil fragments travel are called the maximum ejecta radii.
The theory used in the development of the BEM software will be discussed. Average dke properties are used for each of these soil types. The question becomes how much soil does the fragment have to penetrate before escaping and what is the density of this soil?
ABS Group Training Instructors | Chris Leboeuf
deo Also, BEM will never result in a zero fragment velocity and fragment range. If the energy release is relatively close to the surface, the cavity or void vents to the atmosphere and a crater is formed.
The BEM software produces the same results as when the method is applied by hand. Soil from the crater is also thrown away from the center of the explosion becoming hazardous.
USAESCH is involved in a test program to determine the thickness of sandbags necessary to defeat the primary fragments from a munition detonated on the ground surface. The results dke the BEM software are compared to the results obtained by applying the method by hand.
If the depth of burial is zero surface burst the fragment does not pass through any soil and the velocity of the fragment is the initial velocity.
The results of the hand calculations and the BEM calculations are shown in Figures 2 and 3. Sandbag throw is also measured. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any 11268 provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. Box Huntsville, AL Tuc The results from these tests are compared to the results from BEM in Table 3.
Stochastic Consideration of Cased Munitions for Casing Breakup and Airblast
BEM does not include commands to view or print the results directly. Therefore, as a conservative estimate, all of the soil is assumed to have a density of one-half ttic undisturbed density for the purposes of calculating the drag coefficient on the fragment velocity. For most unexploded ordnance the fragmentation range is much larger than the inhabited building distance IBD for overpressure. Otherwise, the fragment velocity as it exits the soil is calculated 111268 equation 6.
This software is described in the following sections. A munition is placed on its side on the ground surface and sandbags are placed around all four sides and the top of the munition with a 6- inch standoff from the munition.
In this case, the ordnance must be destroyed in place. Therefore, there is not full coupling between the explosive event and the sandbags whereas BEM assumes full coupling between the explosive event and the soil.
These radii are shown in Figure 5. If X is greater than Y, a camouflet will be formed.
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The buried explosion module BEM is a program designed to be used to calculate the residual velocity of fragments produced by a buried munition and the maximum ejecta radius of large soil chunks produced by the buried explosion.
Figure 1 – Maximum Ejecta Radii for Large Soil Chunks  Due to the nature of the equations used in BEM, the calculations will never result in a final fragment velocity and corresponding fragment range of zero. The munition is detonated using a perforating shaped charge. To be consistent with the primary fragment calculations, the maximum range of the soil ejecta should be used.
However, if the munition is buried deeply enough a camouflet is formed instead and no soil is ejected from the site.