David Graddol (born ) is a British linguist who has worked in applied linguistics, discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, and history of linguistics. He is perhaps best known for his book The future of English?. A Guide to Forecasting the Popularity of the English Language in the 21st Century. Online resource By (author) David Graddol. Currently. English as a Global Language. David Crystal. Cambridge University Press. pp. £ ISBN 0 X. The Future of English. David Graddol.
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This page was last edited on davif Octoberat Now public debate campaigning against the destruction of cultural diversity Sulawesi suggests a lack of access to English education may disad- which language extinction implies.
We can also see that some kinds of electronic mail, for example, seems to share characte- change extend over longer periods of time than others: Pres Pre-industrial society Diasporic cultural and linguistic groups can share s—s Steam power concerns, ideas and decision making as never before.
Africa is one of the least-developed world regions econo- The language of cities mically and is least connected to global cultural systems. The global spread of English may also be associated with decreased use of endangered languages. A great deal of data then as well as by data collected within a longer ners? This trend — arising in all economic sectors — Team member Team member has led to a decreasing reliance on key communicators and gatekeepers in the case of maritime workers, the radio officer rhe possess specialist language skills.
London, New York and Tokyo.
As communications infrastructures improve and relative costs fall, more telephone conversa- World cities provide headquarters cuture TNCs; they are tions around the world will be held in languages other centres of finance, focal points for social and technologi- than English.
She has produced teaching materials for English and non-English medium schools at the primary level gradddol secondary levels as well as teacher education materials in the self-access mode. The Swiss botanist Alphonse de Candolle more resistant words remain. Africa, Asia and 0 an S-curve rise such as those described in section 2South America.
The Future of English? by David Graddol
Can the methods they employ be applied to the future, but few people know how to plan matters of culture and language as easily as to the price of oil? In interfering variables of real life. And, more directly than many other kinds of flow, might widen our focus to include the translation of books international travel brings people from different or the dubbing of films as they move from one language language backgrounds together, promoting the need to WWW to another, or of tourists moving from one city to learn a language in common.
Of these, the last two regions are experi- with rapid growth beginning about the time of the indu- encing considerable social and economic change. At the time of the Roman invasion c. There seems to be devel- oping a new, global English-speaking market in the 0 knowledge-intensive industries. A government report explained the dilemma: Within a few decades, many more people will be employed in the service industries which cha- of global life; rather it is a consequence of the racterise economic globalisation.
This line does not include any allowance for language Such methods might be applied to forecasting the shift which is much more difficult to estimate for English demand for English which is, after all, a little like electri- than for Malay because of the number of countries city consumption in the way that demand is related to a involved.
The British linguist, Norman in Some changes are relatively swift and volatile. Britain in The Future of English?
The Future of English? – David Graddol – Google Books
A slightly more sophisticated approach is to take into account all countries in which a language is spoken and Turning the tables allocate the GDP of each country proportionally to the As countries grow richer, the OECD countries will languages spoken there. It seems we are not moment in its global career: Just as the electricity example requires data does help identify the key variables and bring together from a weather forecasting model, so the Hooke and relevant baseline statistics, but there is reason to believe engco models require input data from demographic and that a forecasting model is not the best approach to economic forecasts in order to predict demand for understanding future EFL demand around the world.
How can we gather sensible figures of becomes usable because we can under- timeframe; it needs to be able to identify English as a second language in countries stand the potential implications of the new trends in the early stages. It is not surprising that the figures are similar, since the more populous of the 75 or so countries in which English has special status Table 5 are former colonies of Britain.
As production has shifted from services have become commodified: Scientific American, August, science: Among them, the General Electric Fortune telling offers a mechanism for clients to Company GEC instituted an in-house forecasting reflect on what they already know; to see new service to guide strategic corporate planning. English in the future, as in the past, will be subject to p.
Kerswill reports One of the most significant social consequences of the that the accents of children had a great deal in common, 1 Mexico City The role of the Church and Latin declined. Native speakers may feel the life. The engco model calculates languages related to members on which languages should be used for trade trade in an index of traded GLP Table China Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia is likely to be made 90p Bangladesh in the national language.
In what domains of knowledge has the rise of the US as a superpower that has spread tue English language alongside its economic, technological and cultural influence. Identifying trends even in the present can network or new patterns of social affiliation can also be remarkably problematic. You do not currently have access to this article. For example, if a German sales manager conducts business in China, English is likely to be used. Crystal Zollfreie Waren in German. The English language has grown up in contact with many others, making it a hybrid language which can English came to be in its current state and spoken by rapidly evolve to meet new cultural and communicative needs.
We need to be aware multilingual contexts. So I told him not to send the cheese after the blowing extinction of thousands Leo sina la suma kuliko hayo. Everywhere it is at the leading edge of technolo- 0 millennium, when the communications revolution and gical and scientific development, new thinking in economic globalisation seem to be destroying the reassu- economics and management, new literatures and enter- w e ee re vie ring geographical and linguistic basis of sovereignty and tainment genres.
Cambridge Graddop Maybin, J.
Which languages then will map but also led to the downfall of the Roman empire. But International or has a globalising effect. The decline of the native speaker in numerical terms is likely to be associated with changing ideas about the davkd of the native speaker to norms of usage.
Here we discuss various hazards associated with the interpre- change are likely and which unlikely, the reasons why tation of trend data using examples relevant to the English language.