Feeding by C. pulicaria causes irregular, fine, white scratches on the leaves of maize plants (Poos and Elliott, ). The insect eats through the epidermis of the. Genus Chaetocnema. Species pulicaria (Corn Flea Beetle). Synonyms and other taxonomic changes. Chaetocnema pulicaria F.E. Melsheimer. Description The adult is a very small, smooth, shiny, roundish, black beetle. The hind legs are distinctly enlarged and thickened, and the beetles jump readily.
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Temporal distribution of Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations in Iowa.
Stewart’s wilt symptoms begin at the site of the feeding scars. It is able to develop and reproduce on secondary hosts. Dill suggested that grass growing in areas near to where maize is to be planted the following year should be burned in order to control flea beetles. In most regions of the USA, maize planted earliest in the spring is most severely damaged by flea beetles and Stewart’s wilt.
Maize seedlings are most susceptible to damage, but moving the planting date may allow them to escape periods when flea beetle populations are high. Host-Plant Resistance Plants are not resistant to the flea beetle or its feeding. However, some maize hybrids are resistant to Stewart’s wilt Pantoea stewartii.
Systemic infection is affected by host reaction and the growth stage at the time of infection. The bacterium pulidaria move systemically through susceptible plants Braun, but in resistant plants, movement of P.
Chaetocnema pulicaria – Corn Flea Beetle
However, the exact growth stage at which resistance begins to restrict movement sufficiently to control Stewart’s wilt is not known. Resistant hybrids may not prevent systemic infection or main stalk death when flea beetles feed on the leaf tissue close to the chaetoxnema point before the V2 or Chaetoncema stage Pataky et al.
At later growth stages, Stewart’s wilt ratings were lower and resistance was thought to be more effective because infection sites were farther from the growing point and movement of the bacterium was limited.
Host-plant resistance to Stewart’s wilt is summarized more completely in the datasheet on P. Biological Control No biological control agents chaetocjema been reared and released against C.
Chemical Control Due to the variable regulations around de- registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources: EU pesticides database www. The same study also found that an increase in the rate of insecticide applied, from 0. Disease Forecasting Winter survival of C. Greater survival is expected after a mild winter than after a winter with colder temperatures and, consequently, the potential for Stewart’s wilt is also higher.
A disease forecasting system is used to predict flea beetle survival and subsequently, the risk of Stewart’s wilt for the following crop season Stevens, ; Boewe, ; Eastburn, ; Ries and Pataky, ; Esker, ; Cook, An action threshold used in the north-eastern USA is six adults per maize plants Adams and Los, ; Hoffman et al.
corn flea beetle (Chaetocnema pulicaria)
In Illinois, a threshold of five beetles per yellow sticky trap per day has been proposed Cook, Lower densities that cause minimal direct injury to plants are also of concern because C. Yield and crop quality may be affected by this disease, depending on the severity of infection Pepper, Maize plants may become infected by P.
The effects of Stewart’s wilt on yield are described in detail in the datasheet on P. Yield reduction is significantly higher due to early season systemic infection in susceptible and moderately susceptible hybrids Suparyono and Pataky, ; Freeman and Pataky, When plants were inoculated weeks after planting, Pataky et al.
When infection occurred at later growth stages V7 to V9 or lateryield was not as greatly reduced. Yields of resistant or moderately resistant hybrids were rarely affected when infection occurred after the V3 stage Suparyono and Pataky, If the average daily temperature during this period is above freezing, flea beetles survive and Stewart’s wilt is likely to be severe on susceptible hybrids.
Go to distribution map Agrostis gigantea black bent. Corn flea beetle and bacterial wilt.