Haile Selassie I was an Ethiopian regent from to and emperor from to He is a defining figure in contemporary. My Life and Ethiopia’s Progress is the autobiography of Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie I, written over the course of his life, and published in two volumes in. Born: July 23, Near Harar, Ethiopia Died: August 27, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Ethiopian emperor. Haile Selassie was an emperor of Ethiopia whose.
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Haile Selassie I Ge’ez: He is a defining figure in contemporary Ethiopian history. He was a member of the Solomonic Dynasty who traced his lineage to Emperor Menelik I via his Shewan royal ancestors as a great-grandson of king Sahle Selassie. His internationalist views led to Ethiopia becoming a charter member of the United Nationsand his political thought and experience in promoting multilateralism and collective security have proved seminal and enduring.
His suppression of rebellions among the landed aristocracy the mesafintwhich consistently opposed his reforms, as well as what some critics perceived to be Ethiopia’s failure to modernize rapidly enough,  earned him criticism among some contemporaries and historians.
Among the Rastafari movementwhose followers are estimated to number betweenand one million, Haile Selassie is revered as the returned messiah of the Bible, God incarnate. The famine in Ethiopia led to Haile Selassie’s eventual removal from the throne. Lij is translated as “child”, and serves to indicate that a youth is of noble blood. His given name, Tafarimeans “one who is respected or feared”.
Like most Ethiopians, his personal name “Tafari” is followed by that of his father Makonnen and rarely that of his grandfather Woldemikael. His Ge’ez name Haile Selassie was given to him at his infant baptism and adopted again as part of his regnal name in Ras is translated as “head”  and is a rank of nobility equivalent to Duke ;  though it is often rendered in translation as “prince”. Inshe granted him the throne of Shewa, elevating his title to Negus or “King”. Haile Selassie’s royal line through his father’s mother descended from Sahle Selassie He was born on 23 Julyin the village of Ejersa Goroin the Harar province of Ethiopia.
Vitalien, a surgeon from Guadeloupe.
Tafari was named Dejazmach literally “commander of the gate”, roughly equivalent to ” count ”  at the age of 13, on 1 November Tafari assumed the titular governorship of Selale ina realm of marginal importance,  but one that enabled him to continue his studies. It is alleged that during his late teens, Haile Selassie was married to Woizero Altayech, and that from this union, his daughter Princess Romanework was born.
Following the death of his brother Yelma inthe governorate of Harar was left vacant,  and its administration was left to Menelik’s loyal general, Dejazmach Balcha Safo.
Balcha Safo’s administration of Harar was ineffective, and so during the last illness of Menelik II, and the brief reign of Empress Taitu BitulTafari was made governor of Harar in  or The extent to which Tafari Makonnen contributed to the movement that would come to depose Iyasu V has been discussed extensively, particularly in Haile Selassie’s own detailed account of the matter.
Iyasu V, or Lij Iyasu, was the designated but uncrowned emperor of Ethiopia from to Iyasu’s reputation for scandalous behavior and a disrespectful attitude towards the nobles at the court of his grandfather, Menelik II,  damaged his reputation.
Iyasu’s flirtation with Islam was considered treasonous among the Ethiopian Orthodox Christian leadership of the empire. On 27 SeptemberIyasu was deposed. The movement to depose Iyasu preferred Tafari, as he attracted support from both progressive and conservative factions. Ultimately, Iyasu was deposed on the grounds of conversion to Islam.
In the power arrangement that followed, Tafari accepted the role of Regent Plenipotentiary Balemulu ‘Inderase [nb 4] and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire Mangista Ityop’p’ya. Zewditu would govern while Tafari would administer. While Iyasu had been deposed on 27 Septemberon 8 October he managed to escape into the Ogaden Desert and his father, Negus Mikael of Wollohad time to come to his aid.
During the Battle of SegaleNegus Mikael was defeated and captured. Any chance that Iyasu would regain the throne was ended and he went into hiding. On 11 Januaryafter avoiding capture for about five years, Iyasu was taken into custody by Gugsa Araya Selassie. On 11 Februarythe coronation for Zewditu took place.
She pledged to rule justly through her Regent, Tafari. While Tafari was the more visible of the two, Zewditu was far from an honorary ruler.
Her position required that she arbitrate the claims of competing factions. In other words, she had the last word.
Tafari carried the burden of daily administration but, because his position was relatively weak, this was often an exercise in futility for him. Initially his personal army was poorly equipped, his finances were limited, and he had little leverage to withstand the combined influence of the Empress, the Minister of War, or the provincial governors.
Also, during this time, he survived the flu pandemichaving come down with the illness. The primary goal of the trip to Europe was for Ethiopia to gain access to the sea.
Although patterning many reforms after European models, Tafari remained wary of European pressure. To guard against economic imperialismTafari required that all enterprises have at least partial local ownership. That is at once a benefit and a misfortune. Throughout Tafari’s travels in Europe, the Levantand Egypthe and his entourage were greeted with enthusiasm and fascination.
He was accompanied by Seyum Mangasha and Hailu Tekle Haymanot who, like Tafari, were sons of generals who contributed to the victorious war against Italy a quarter-century earlier at the Battle of Adwa. The crown had been taken by Robert Napier during the Expedition to Abyssinia.
My Life and Ethiopia’s Progress – Wikipedia
In this period, the Crown Prince visited the Autobiorgaphy monastery of Jerusalem. Tafari arranged for the musical education of the youths, and they came to form the imperial brass band.
Tafari’s authority was challenged in when Dejazmatch Balcha Safo went to Addis Ababa with a sizeable armed force. When Tafari consolidated his hold over the provinces, many of Menelik’s appointees refused to abide autobography the new regulations. Balcha Safo, the governor Shum of coffee-rich Sidamo Provincewas particularly troublesome.
The revenues he remitted to the central government did not reflect the accrued profits and Tafari recalled him to Addis Ababa. The old man came in high dudgeon and, insultingly, with a large army. Even so, the gesture of Balcha Safo empowered Empress Zewditu politically and she attempted to have Tafari tried for treason. He was tried for his benevolent dealings with Italy including a year peace accord which was signed on 2 August.
When confronted by Tafari and a company of his troops, the ringleaders of the coup took refuge on the palace grounds in Menelik’s mausoleum. Tafari and his men surrounded them only to be surrounded themselves by the personal guard of Zewditu.
More of Tafari’s khaki clad soldiers arrived and, with superiority of arms, decided the outcome in his favor. The crowning of Tafari as King was controversial. He occupied the same territory as the empress rather than going off to a regional kingdom of the empire.
Two monarchs, even with one being the vassal and the other the emperor in this case empresshad never occupied the same location as their seat in Ethiopian history. Conservatives agitated to redress this perceived selassue to the dignity of the crown, leading to the rebellion of Ras Gugsa Welle. Gugsa Welle was the husband of the empress and the Shum of Begemder Province.
aurobiography In earlyhe raised an army and marched it from his governorate at Gondar towards Addis Ababa. Gugsa Welle was killed in action. Although it was long rumored that the empress was poisoned upon the defeat of her husband,  or alternately that she died from shock upon hearing of the death of her estranged yet beloved husband,  it has since been documented that the Empress succumbed to a flu-like fever and complications from diabetes.
Haile Selassie I
The coronation was by all accounts “a most splendid affair”,  and it was attended by royals and dignitaries from all over the world. Haile Selassie introduced Ethiopia’s first written constitution yaile 16 July providing for a bicameral legislature. Ethiopia became the target of renewed Italian imperialist designs in the s. Benito Mussolini ‘s Fascist regime was keen to avenge the military defeats Italy had suffered to Ethiopia in the First Italo-Abyssinian Warand to efface the failed attempt by “liberal” Italy to conquer the country, as epitomised by the defeat at Adwa.
Ethiopia’s position in the League of Nations did not dissuade the Italians from invading in autoibography the ” collective security ” envisaged by the League proved useless, and a scandal erupted when the Hoare-Laval Pact revealed that Ethiopia’s League allies were xutobiography to appease Italy.
Haile Selassie – Wikipedia
He issued his mobilization order on 3 October O you withhold from your country Ethiopia the death from cough or head-cold of which you would otherwise die, refusing to resist in your district, in your patrimony, and in your home our enemy who is coming from a distant country to attack us, and if you persist in not shedding your selassoe, you will be rebuked for it by your Creator and will be cursed by your offspring.
Hence, without cooling your heart haild accustomed valour, there emerges your decision to fight fiercely, mindful of your history that will last far into the future… If on your march you touch any property inside houses or cattle and crops outside, not even grass, straw, and dung excluded, it is like killing your brother who is dying with you… You, countryman, living at the various access routes, set up a market for the army at the places where it is camping and on the day your district-governor will indicate to you, lest the soldiers campaigning for Ethiopia’s liberty should experience difficulty.
You will not be charged excise duty, until the end of the campaign, for anything you are marketing at the military camps: I have granted you remission… After you have been ordered to go to war, but are then idly missing from the campaign, and when you are seized by the local chief or by an accuser, you will have punishment inflicted upon your inherited land, your property, and your body; to the accuser Selassiee shall grant a third of your property….
Compared to the Ethiopians, the Italians had an advanced, modern military which included selassiee large air force. The Italians would also come to employ chemical weapons extensively pf the conflict, even targeting Red Cross field hospitals in violation of the Geneva Conventions.
Starting in early Octoberthe Haild invaded Ethiopia. But, by November, the pace of invasion had slowed appreciably and Haile Selassie’s northern armies were able to launch what was known as the ” Christmas Offensive “.
During this offensive, the Italians were forced back in places and put on the defensive. In earlythe First Battle of Tembien stopped the progress of the Ethiopian offensive and the Italians were ready to continue their offensive. Following the defeat and destruction of the northern Ethiopian armies at the Battle of Amba Aradamthe Second Battle of Tembienand the Battle of ShireHaile Selassie took the field with the last Ethiopian army on the northern front.
On 31 Marchhe launched a counterattack against the Italians himself at the Battle of Maychew in southern Tigray. The emperor’s army was defeated and retreated in disarray. Hiale Haile Selassie’s army withdrew, the Italians attacked from the air along with rebellious Raya and Azebo tribesmen on hhaile ground, who were armed and paid by the Italians. Haile Selassie made a solitary pilgrimage to the churches at Lalibelaat considerable risk of selasssie, before returning to his capital.
After further debate as to whether Haile Selassie should go to Gore or accompany his family into exile, it was agreed that he should leave Ethiopia with his family and present the case of Ethiopia to the League of Nations at Geneva. The decision was not unanimous and several participants, including the nobleman Blatta Tekle Wolde Hawariatstrenuously objected to the idea of an Ethiopian monarch fleeing before an invading force.
They were bound for Jerusalem in the British Aitobiography of Palestinewhere the Ethiopian royal family maintained a residence. The Imperial family disembarked at Haifa and then went on to Jerusalem. Once there, Haile Selassie and his retinue prepared to make their case at Geneva. The choice of Jerusalem was highly symbolic, since the Solomonic Dynasty claimed descent from the House of David.
From Gibraltar, the exiles were transferred to an ordinary liner. By doing this, wutobiography government of the United Kingdom was spared the expense of a state reception.
Mussolini, upon invading Ethiopia, had promptly declared his own ” Italian Empire. The introduction caused a great many Italian journalists in the galleries to erupt into jeering, heckling, and whistling.