Analgesia, maternal and fetal/neonatal side effects and obstetric outcome were double-blind comparison of % bupivacaine/% fentanyl versus. Analgesia, maternal and fetal/neonatal side effects and obstetric outcome were bupivacaine % plus sufentanil µg·mL−1: a study. Presented in part at the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and boluses of bupivacaine % + fentanyl 2 −1 as part of a programmed.

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Examples of typical epidural regimens are shown in Table 2. There is no other circumstance where it is considered acceptable for a person to experience untreated severe pain, amenable to safe intervention, while under a physician’s care. Epidural analgesia during labour-comparison of 0. Though randomized controlled trials RCT are considered the gold standard for research, in labour they can be difficult to blind and therefore, there is potential for observer bias.

The mode of delivery and the Apgar scores of the neonates at 1 and 5 minutes obstetroc comparable. This may merely reflect the fact that women with complicated, painful labours might request epidural analgesia more often. This is clearly achieved with epidural analgesia. In theory, LDI should decrease anaesthetic workload, provide more constant analgesia and better haemodynamic stability and sterility.

There is only a modest reduction in patients requiring anaesthetic intervention. A comparison of 0. The effectiveness of analgesia was better. In the same meta-analysis of RCTs of epidural vs non-epidural analgesia, epidural analgesia was found to prolong labour, though only modestly. When used in equipotent doses 0. Fentanyl is perhaps the most 0.625 used opioid in the UK.

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However, its use is associated with sedation and hypotension and it is not widely used in obstetrics. Combined spinal epidural versus epidural analgesia in labour.


Obstftric, an effect on outcome of labour has not been shown. The cause of the pyrexia is not fully understood but appears to be independent of infection. Whatever the influence of epidural analgesia on labour, it is obvious that obstetric management will have an impact on the mode of delivery.

The needle-through-needle technique may have a longer learning curve and a higher incidence of technical failure compared with single-shot 00625 or epidurals. In MLAC studies, the relative analgesic potency of ropivacaine to bupivacaine was obsyetric. However, it is not always associated with improved maternal satisfaction.

Traditionally, concentrated local anaesthetic LA solutions were used in the initial dose to establish epidural analgesia, but lower concentrations of LA and opioid have been shown to establish good analgesia within a satisfactory ohstetric scale. Once again, the clinical importance of these isolated reports is obstehric. CJA ; 51 6: Sign In or Create an Account. A greater proportion of parturient achieved a maximum level of analgesia unto T8.

Continuous infusion epidural analgesia in obstetrics: Nulliparity and labour longer than 12 h were also independent predictors for maternal pyrexia. The side effects were mild sedation and in the parturient who received fentanyl. Effect of epidural analgesia on labour and outcome. No clear advantages have been demonstrated when compared with midwife administered low dose top-ups.

CJA ; 38 3: Chloroprocaine is an ester LA with an extremely rapid onset of action; it is widely used in the US to top up epidurals for operative delivery. The combination of low concentration LA e.

The risk of postpartum back pain is not increased. Opioids can be added to LA or used as a sole epidural or intrathecal agent to provide analgesia for labour Table 1. Since epidural analgesia was introduced four decades ago for pain relief in labour, controversy has persisted about its effect on the labour process.


Toxicity concerns may seem irrelevant when low dose techniques are used, but during protracted labours, the total amount of LA may be high, and large boluses may be required for operative delivery.

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia PCEA has proved a safe and reliable technique. Comparison of ropivacaine 0. Combination of local anaesthetic and opioids is particularly effective.

Though women who receive epidural analgesia during labour are more likely to require instrumental or caesarean delivery, there is little evidence to suggest that the epidural itself is to blame. Such studies are of interest because of the large number of patients but the methodology has been criticized: However, there have recently been a number of well-designed RCTs of epidural vs non-epidural analgesia that seem to have finally addressed some of the issues surrounding epidural analgesia in labour.

Epidural opioids have a LA dose-sparing effect in labour analgesia.

Epidural analgesia in labour | BJA Education | Oxford Academic

Abstract Since epidural analgesia was obstetfic four decades ago for pain relief in labour, controversy has persisted about its effect on the labour process. In view of the above, the present study assesses the clinical effectiveness of continuous lumbar epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery by using 0. Bupivacaine provides effective analgesia epidurally but produces dose-dependent motor block and has a poor safety profile, causing life-threatening cardiovascular and neurological sequelae in overdose.